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Epidemiology

PHE runs national surveillance programmes to collect data on HCAI. Surveillance programmes cover:

Clostridioides difficile

Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that’s found in people’s intestines. It can be found in healthy people, where it causes no symptoms (up to 3% of adults and 66% of babies).

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria are frequently found in the intestines of humans and animals. There are many different types of E. coli, and while some live in the intestine quite harmlessly, others may cause a variety of diseases.

Klebsiella spp.

Klebsiella spp. are the second most common cause of gram-negative bloodstream infections after E. coli. It's typically more common in people receiving healthcare interventions such as those in intensive care.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

P. aeruginosa bacteria typically causes opportunistic infections in patients with severe injuries or medical conditions such as burns or cystic fibrosis.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that commonly colonises human skin and mucosa without causing any problems. It can also cause disease, particularly if there is an opportunity for the bacteria to enter the body, for example through broken skin or a medical procedure.